INTRODUCTION This fast-growing orchid-tree will ultimately reach 35 feet in height and width, the slender trunks topped with arching branches clothed in large, two-lobed, deciduous leaves. In fall, before the leaves drop, orchid-tree is festooned with many showy and delightfully fragrant, 5- inch-wide blossoms, the narrow purple, pink, and lavender petals arranged to closely resemble an orchid. These flowers appear on the trees from September through November and are a beautiful sight to see, creating a vivid splash of color in the autumn landscape. The flowers are followed by 12-inch-long, slender, brown, flat seedpods which usually persist on the tree throughout the winter, then fall to create a mess to clean up. The spectacular flower display makes orchid-tree a favorite for specimen plantings. Kanchanara (Bauhinia purpurea) is one of the highly valued vine useful in a wide range of diseases. It is commonly used and prescribed Ayurvedic medicine in Apaci, Gandamala, Krimiroga, Vrana, Gudabhramsa. It contained many secondary metabolites which are suitable to be used as medicines. The phytochemical screening revealed that Bauhinia purpurea contained terpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins, saponins, reducing sugars, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The pharmacological studies showed that Bauhinia purpurea exerted anticancer, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, immunomodulating, molluscicidal and wound healing effects. Numerous reports had been published on active chemical constituents and several biological activities of Bauhinia purpurea without taking into consideration the seasonal impacts.
Vernacular name Sanskrit :- Raktapuspa, Kovidara Botanical name:- Bauhinia purpurea Linn.Butterfly Tree, Orchid tree, Mountain Ebony, Buddhist bauhinia, Camel’s foot tree, Wild champak. Hindi :- Gairal, Kaliar, Kandan Malayalam:- Savannamandaram Oriya:- Boroda, Debokanjora Marathi :- Devakanchana, Atmatti Bengali :- Devakancha Malayalam:- Suvannamandaram Punjabi :- Karalli, Kanchanal, Kularh, Kolar, Koiral, Karalla. Telugu:- Devakanjanamu Tamil :- Kalavilaichi Kannada :- Basavanapadu
MEANING OF SYNONYMS Kachanara - Its flowers are golden yellow in colour.(i.e. B.X.). Kundali Its flowers resemble the shape of kundali. Kuddal It germinates while forcefully piercing through the soil. Kovidara Its germinates forcefully piercing through the soil. Gandari Its effectively cures lymph node disorders / swelling. Chamrik Iit will have smooth and beautiful flower.like chamer flower. Tamrapushpa It has copper or red coloured flowers. (i.e. B.V.) Yugmapatrak Its leaf is bifid. Swalpkeshari Its stamens are very few in number. Karbudar coloured flowers and leaf is bifoliade.
IN AYURVEDIC LITERATURE Vedic Period In Vedic period we can’t find Kanchanara as an internal and external medicine. Kovidara is the original name of Kanchanara during Vedic and Samhita period. In Vedic literatures references of Kovidara flowers are seen in Ayodhyakanda, Sundara kanda, Yuddakanda of Valmiki Ramayana. In Harivamsa Kovidara is described as a tree with beautiful flowers. Vedic literature considers it stem as forbidden for rituals. The Rig-veda dates back to BC 1500 in the Vedic period. Much reference was given to daiva-vyapasraya chikitsa than yuktivyapasraya chikitsa. Vedic Literature concider its stems are forebidden for rituals (Jai.Gr.1/1;Kou.Sou.21/3/20 & Pa.Ga.4/2/80).its utility is relativity less is the Brhat Trayi period. Samhita Kala Kanchanara is classified in Ayurvedic literature in different context, because of its several valuable uses. It's utility is relatively less in the Brihat- trayi period when compared to Nigantu period. Charaka considered it as Vamanopaga while Susruta descried it as Vamana (Urdhvabhagahara). Susruta also clarified that the root is the useful part of Kovidara etc. (S.S.Su.39/3), while the practice at present is to use the stem bark. Another aspect about Kovidara is that it is described along with Karbudara i.e. – white variety of Kovidara. The white variety is identified as Bauhinia alba. Karbudara is described only one by Vagbhata (A.H.Ka.1/7). Charaka Samhita (2-3 rd BC) Acarya Charaka has described Kanchanara in the different ganas as Vamnopaga Mahakashaya, Kashay skandha, Shakvarga etc. Charaka has mention a Kanchanara in valuable medicinal yogas like Chandanadi tail, Kovidara puspha curna, Kanchanarguggul etc.Kovidara was mentioned in Vamanapoga desaimani, in sutrastana.-Kovidara and Karbudhara are described in Samhitas and Chakrapani quoted that Kovidara and Karbudara flowering occurs in sarad ritu and vasanta ritu respectively. Regarding Kanchanara, Charaka Samhita contains nearly 12-14 referances. Susruta Samhita (2nd BC) Acarya Susruta has described Kanchanara in Nyogrodhadi gana. According to action and uses of Kanchanara Acarya Susruta has described Kanchanara in pitta Samsamana varga and Rakta Samsamana varga. Kovidara was mentioned in, Kashaya varga and Urdwabhagahara gana.Tender leaves of Kovidara are used in raktapitta chikitsa. In kalpastana devakanchanara was mentioned for sarpa vishachikitsa. He also prescribed Kovidara flowers for internal hemorrhage. Dalhana treated Karbudhara as a variety of Kanchanara or slesmataka. Karbudara i.e Kanchanara (Bauhinia variegata) and Kovidara of later texts-its tender leaves and flowers are used as vegetables. In Susruta Samhita nearly 9- 10 reference of this plant. Samgraha kala The Samgraha kala denotes the breakthrough in ‘Ayuveda’it being represented in total 8 parts (angas) and hence the granthas are named ‘Astang’. Acarya Vagbhata According to Astanga Hrdaya and Astanga Samgraha, Kanchanara is stated in pitta Samsamana as well as Vamnopaga Varga also. In Astanga Hrdaya about 3-5 and Astanga Samgraha 10 referances given of this drug.
- Astanga Hridaya (7th centuary AD) Root powder of Kovidara was mentioned for arsha chikitsa. Kovidara picchabasti was used for rectal prolapse. The decotion of Kovidara flowers are indicated in diseases like Fever, Anoerexia, Goitre, Malignant tumours and Eenlargement of abdomen. Sarangadara Samhita Sarangadara mentioned some of its preparations like Kanchanaraguggulu and indicated in disease like Apachi, Grandhi, Gulma, Kushta etc. Other Samhita Acharya Bhavaprakasha and Cakradatta had stated 30 references each approximately. Nighantu Kala In the Nighantu Kala Kanchanara became very famous and popular. So all The Nighantu have described its Botanical background property and therapeutic uses. All the Nighantu have mentioned the valuable properties of Kanchanara like Sita (cold), etc. Dhanvantari Nigantu, Raja Nigantu, Bhavaprakasa Nigantu, Kaiyadeva Nigantu, described in detail about the guna, karma of Kanchanara but with slight differences. Dhanvantari Nighantu In this Nighantu synonyms and properties of Kanchanar is described in Guducyadi varga. Svetapushpa was said as Kanchanara and rakta pushpa as Kovidara. Shodhala Nighantu In this text, Kanchanara is described under the Guducyadi varga.
- Madanpala Nighantu In this text Kanchanara is include in Haritkyadi varga. Synonyms given in this Nighantu as Kanchanara, Kuddala, Kovidara, Chamarika, Swalpakesara, Asphotala, Kuli, Uddala, Kachanak, Pakari, Rakatapushapak, Kuhali and Dallaka.
- Kaideva Nighnatu In this Nighnatu Kanchanara is described in Aushadhi varga. It has Kashaya Flower Laghu, ruksha sheeta and Guru guna. it is useful in Kasa, Swasa Rakatapradar, Gndamala, Gudabharns etc
- Raj Nighantu In this context, Kanchanara has described under the Karaviradi varga. Pt. Narahari described 14 name of Kanchanara. He also described the guna of Kanchanara.
- Bhavaprakash Nighantu Bhavamisra has described this in Guduchyadivarga and given the description of Kanchanara and Kovidara seperately but attributed some properties to them. Acharya denotes the properties of Kanchanara like Sothahara, Swasa, Kasa, Rakatapradar, Gndamala, Gudabharns, Krimighan, Kushathagn etc. Nignatu Adarsha In this Nighantu Vaidya Bapa Lal describe the Kanchanara in Putikaranjadi Varga. Varga or Gana Depending upon the drug origin morphology, property, pharmacodynamics and therapeutic value ancient texts have classified the drug into Ganas,Vargas and Skandha. Different Acharya have described Kanchanara in different Ganas, which are described as followsCharak samhita - Vamnopaga mahakshaya Varga, Supaya shak varga Susruta Samhita - Kashayamadhura shaka varga, Nyogradhadi gana, Urdhvabhagahara Pushapa varga. Astanga Hridaya -Vamnopaga Astanga sangarha -Vamnopaga Bhela Samhita -Sakavarga, Kashaya varga Madanpala Nighantu -Haritkyadi varga Raj Nighantu -Karaviradi varga Dhanwantari Nighantu -Guduchyadi varga Bhavaprakash Nighantu -Guduchyadi varga Saligram Nighantu -Guduchyadi varga Kaiyadeva Nighantu -Oushadi varga Nigantu adarsha -Kovidara varga, Putikaranjadi varga Gunaratnamala -Guduchyadi Varga Sabdachandrika -Vrichhadi varga Sarasvati nighantu -Pittakaphaghana varga Siddhamantra -Pittakaphaghana varga Abhidhanaratnamala -Kashaya skandha Nighantushesha -Vrichha-kanda Madhavadravyaguna -Vividha aoushadhi Varga SYNONYMS In the past days, the Ayurvedic system of Description of a medicinal plant was through various synonyms which are indicative of its physical, characters, habitat, actions, properties, therapeutic uses, specific characteristic etc. so the knowledge of synonyms of the drugs has much importance in dravyguna vigyana. Description of Kanchanara can be well traced in different text and presented in follow:- Kachanara Kundali Kuddala Kovidara
Gandari Chamarika Tamrapuspa Yugamapatraka Swalpakesara Marika Mahayamalapatraka Asphotala Kuli Uddala Kumbara Kachanak Pakari Rakatapushapak Kuhali Dallaka Kanchana Kanchana Kantara Kanakaprabha Suvarnari Girija Karaka Kachanaraka Mahapushapa Yamalachhanda Kachhaka Sodapushapaka Kuddara Uddalaka Rakatakanchana Champavidala Kanakaraka Kantapushapa Pitapushapa Kumbhar Asmantak Kundala Koliyasha Bhramreshto Manohar Aacchandana Swambhau Paro Yamalapatrak Kamalu Kachano Bhadradaru Yugachanda Karbudar Sita Kachnar Kachnal Kularh Koral Koral Kapakati Mandare Devakanchanamu
Used Part Though barks is the most commonly used part, the leaves, fruit, stem and flowers are also being used in various accessions. According to different acharya the useful part used in Raj nighntu leaves flower and root bark, Dhanvantari nighntu stem barkand flower uses, Madanpal and kaiydev nighntu flowers ues and Classical use medicinal plant used in flower and root bark. Action Action of Kachanara on is largely accepted as Kaphapittaghna. The opinion of difeerent authors have been comment by Dhanvantri nighnatu are Slashamapittahara, Sangarhi, dipana, Rajnighantu are Kaphavataghana and Mutrasangrahaniya Madanpal nighntu are Pittaghana, Sangarhi, Bhavprakash nighntu are Slashamapittahara, Pittaghana, Sangarhi, kaiydev nighntu are Rochana, Slashamapittahara, Pittaghana, Sangarhi, Dravyagunsangrah are Sangarhi, Nighatu ratanakar Agnidipak, Sarak, Slashamapittahara, Pittaghana, Sangarhi, Shaligram nighatu Pittaghana, shodhal nighatu are Vatakopak, Slashamapittahara. Prayoga The bark are bitter, sweet oleaginous, cooling, and contain large amount of tannine, digestion
1. Intrinsic Heamorrhage 1. Flowers of Kovidara, Kasmarya and Salmali should be used as vegetable in case of intrinsic haemorrhage. (c.s.ci.4.39) 2. One suffering from intrinsic haemorrhage should take powedered flowers of Khadira, Priyangu, Kovidara and Salmali.(c.s.4.70) 2. Piles Powder of the Kovidara root (bark) should be taken with buttermilk.(AH.chi. 8.31) 3. Snake- poisoning Kovidara, Sirisa, Arka and Katabhi should be taken.(s.s.ka.5.18), Part used :- Flowers root. Dose :- Powder 3-5gm ;Decoction 50-100ml. Prayoga (Uses) According to different authors comment have been Dhanvantri nighnatu are Gudabranshnashana, Kusthaghna, Gandamalanasana, Vranasodh-ana,vranaropana Madanpal nighntu are khayahara, kasaghna, Gudabranshnashana, Raktapradaranasana, Krimighna, Vranasodh-anavranar-opana, Kusthaghna, Gandamalanasana Bhavprakash nighntu are comment khayahara, kasaghna, Gudabranshnashana, Raktapradaranasana, Kasahara, Krimighna, Kusthaghna Kaiydev nighntu are Swasahara, khayahara, kasaghna, Gudabranshnashana, Raktapradaranasana, Kusthaghna, Vranasodh-ana,vranaropana, Gandamalanasana, Nighatu ratanakar Raktapittahara, khayahara, kasaghna, Gudabranshnashana, Raktapradaranasana, Krimighna, Vranasodhana,vranaropana Shaligram nighatu Krimighna, Kusthaghna, Vranasodhana,vranaropana, Gandamalanasana Charak samhita Raktapittahara Susruta samhita Raktapittahara Dravyguna vigyana Raktapittahara Guna (Properties) Kanchanara has been said to have kashaya, katu Rasa, katu Vipaka, Sheeta Veerya and laghu, rukha, Sheeta Gunas. There is a difference of opinion about the pradhana rasa whether it is kashaya or katu. All the properties attributed to, by different acharyas have been different said Raj nighntu, Nighantu ratanakara and Dhanvantari nighntu rasa have been kashaya, madanpal nighntu comment rasa kashaya, Sheeta virya, guna of flower Laghu, ruksha, Bhapakash nighntu said kashaya rasa Sheeta virya Flower -Laghu ruksha, Katu vipaka Flower Madhura vipak, Shaligram nighntu comment kashaya rasa, guna- laghu, ruksha.
Kaiyadev nighntu rasa kashaya, flower madhura rasa, flower guru guna bark laghu ruksha, katu vipakflower- madhura vipak. Stem Bark 1. Rasa - Kasaya 2. Guna - Ruksa, Laghu 3. Veerya - Sheeta 4. Vipaka - Katu 5. Karma - Kapha-pittahara, Grahni, Dipana 6. Prabhava - Gandamalanashana Flower The flowers of Bauhinia purpurea are used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. In terms of rasa panchaka theory of Ayurveda, the properties of kovidara are as follows Rasa (taste) - Madhura, Kasaya(astringent). Guna (quality) - Laghu(light for - digestion), Ruksha(Creates dryness) Veerya - Sheeta(Conserves energy during digestion & metabolism). Vipaka (Digestive effect)- Madhur Karma (action) - Gandmalanashana, Vrana Shodhana-Vrana ropana Doshagnata (effect on doshas) - Pittahara (mitigates pitta). Vyadhiharatva (indications) - Arshas (hemorrhoids), Kasa (cough), Rakta pradara (menorrhagia), Ruksa (creates dryness), Grahi/Kostabaddhata (constipation). Farmulation 5:1 Kachanarguggulu (Sharangdhar Samhita, Gandamala- Apachi Rogadhikar,100, P-206) 1:8 Usirasava (Bhaisajyaratnavali, Raktapittaadhikara,137-141,P63) Asavaandarista Usirasava, Chandanasava, Vidangarista, Kanchanararishta Bhasma Kanchanaradrava
Guggulu Kanchanara Guggulu, Triphaladi guggulu, Vyoshadi guggulu Guti Kanchana gutika Kvatha Kanchanaradi kvath Rasayoga Gandamala kandan rasa Sneha Ajamodadhya tail, Chandanadya taila,Amrita ghrita, Mahamayura ghrita Kanchanara Ghana, Gulakanda Kanchanara. Dose Bark Churna : 3-6 gm Bark Kwatha : 40-80 ml Flower Swarasa : 10-20 ml For Decoction : 20-30 gm